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Dating of Buddha
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Archaeology and the Buddha's date: an unsettled question

 


There are many Buddhas according to the tradition of Bauddham. Anyway, historians have been attempting to determine the birth date of Buddha (Gautama). Attempts have been made to correct the Theravada 'long chronology'. Heinz Bechert promoted a conference in Gottingen in 1988 and based on circumstantial evidence of literary sources suggested that the Buddha's nirvana took place ca. 1st half of fourth century BCE. Herbert Hartel followed up and attempted an archaeological explanation for the 'short' chronology of the Buddha stating that settlements in Lumbini did not reach even the 5th century BCE. 

Does archaeology really help? The question is thus wide open for speculative excursus by motivated scholars.

Bechert, H. 1991, The date of the Buddha. An open question of ancient Indian history, in Bechert, H. ed., The datings of the historical Buddha, Die Datierung des historischen Buddha, part 1. Gottingen: 222-236. (Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Gottingen, Phil.Hist. Kl., Dritte Folge, 189).

Hartel, H. 1991, Archaeological Research on Ancient Buddhist sites, in Bechert, H. ed. opcit., pp. 61-89.

Giovanni Verardi, 2004, Buddha's birth and Reassessment of archaeological evidence in: Christoph Cueppers, Max Deeg and Hubert Durt, The Birth of the Buddha, Proceedings of the Seminar held in Lumbini, Nepal, October 2004, Lumbini, Lumbini International Research Institute (pp.19-39)

http://www.docstoc.com/docs/121305094/Buddhas-birth-and-archaeological-data-(Giovanni-Verardi-2004)

Buddha's birth and archaeological data (Giovanni Verardi, 2004)




Buddha-concept and persons
-Arun Kumar Upadhyay, IPS
B-9, CB-9, Cantonment Road, Cuttack-753001
0671-2304172/2304433, (M) 9437034172
arunupadhyay30@yahoo.in, www.scribd.com/Arunupadhyay

1.Introduction- Buddhism flourished after Siddhārtha Buddha, born as son of Śuddhodana on 31-3-1986 BC in 24th generation of Sūrya-vamśa starting with Ikśvāku on 1-10-8576 BC after glacial floods in 10000-9500 BC. After Mahābhārata war on 1 to 18-10-3139 BC, they shifted to sal forest area south of Nepal. It is major tree of that region in pillar shape, called śaka (strong) or sakhua in local language. Śaka tree of south India is teak called śaka-vana (sagwān). So, he was called Śākyamuni. However, Buddhism as a thought and a way of life was much ancient and several Buddhas were born outside and within India.
Essential idea of Buddhism is Buddhi =intellect which should be used to find correct path in manifold alternatives given in religious texts. That was preached beautifully by Bhagavān Kŗşņa in Gītā as Buddhi-yoga (application of Buddhi). That was meant to be selection of best or middle path from 2 main streams since long past-Sānkhya (knowledge) and Yoga (action). A third stream was Bhakti (devotion) which is in fact division of Universe in self and God for link-though both are one. So, it is called devotion. (Bhakti = process of bhāga or division). In text form, teachings of Buddhism are based on verbal logic called Nyāya (justice) as this is mostly used in courts for justice. However, it has all the branches needed for improvement of man.

2. Philosophy-Bauddha darśana (philosophy) is called Vaināśika and is based on observation (Pratyakśa) and logic (tarka). This has existed since start of language itself. There are 3 steps of vāk (sound) within brain cavity (guhā)-abstract thought (parā), visible (paśyantī) and formation of word sequence (madhyamā = intermediate). So, it is called ‘Go’ as ‘Ga’ is third consonant. Words expressed as sound or writing cannot give the full meaning due to limitations of language and man. So, it is called ‘tama’ (dark). The link between inner and outer parts is called Go+tama = Gautama as author of Nyāya-sūtras. In justice system, it is used to convert black (tama =false) into white (go =truth) and vice-versa. For 4 levels of men, there are 4 streams of Buddhist philosophy-

(1) Mādhyamika (=middle path). This is also called Śūnya-vāda (zero principle) as it assumes sum total of world as zero. This is similar to Vaiśeşika (sūtras by Kaņāda)
(2) Vijñānāsti (science based)-This assumes that world has been created by intellect or universal consciousness called Puruşa in Vedas. This is combination of verbal logic and Sānkhya (sūtras by Kapila)
(3) Yogāchāra-External world is imagination of mind. Control of mind is science of Yoga (sūtras by Patañjali) and conduct on this path is Yogāchāra.
(4) Vaibhāşika-This assumes vibhāşā (vikalpa =alternates)- i.e. existence of inner and outer both worlds. This joins 2 mimānsās-pūrva = primary (sūtras by Jaimini) and Uttara = later or Vedānta. It is summarized in Brahma- sūtras by Veda-vyāsa called Bādarāyaņa.

There are 4 types of Puruşa (man, or world, any object)-1. Kśara-Decaying outer form, 2. Akśara-Functional identity which is hidden. 3. Avyaya- As part of surroundings or chain of transformation-sum total is same. 4. Parātpara-At root level, there is no distinction. For these levels, there are 4 types of time or Kāla, which is perception of change-1. Nitya (eternal) Kāla –which always decays the world and each object. 2. Janya (creative) Kāla –This is time-cycle of a yajña (creation cycle) by which time units are defined for measuring time interval. 3. Akśaya (conserved) Kāla –This is based on 5 types of conservation laws of physics (one in quantum theory) for a closed system. 4. Parātpara Kāla –This is beyond perception at micro and macro levels.

Parallel to these, there are 4 levels of development of Buddhi (Intellect) and 4 types of evolution of man-

Śrāvaka (aspirant)-common individual.
Bodhisattva-Developing stage.
Pratyeka Buddha-Developed stage of individuals, incarnations of Buddha.
Samyak Buddha-Highest state of Buddha realized for brief moment.
Samyak Buddha is a unique state, and there can be only one such Buddha. Pratyeka Buddha is its visible human form. For 7 lokas, 24 Prakŗti, or 28 defects of Buddhi in Sānkhya, there are 7, 24, or 28 Buddhas. 
Times of Buddhas
(1) There are 2 Buddhas in list of 28 – Siddhārtha and Gautama. Both are assumed to be same. 28 Buddhas are described in Chapter 27 of the Buddhavamśa, plus Maitreya Bodhisattva, the future (and 29th) Buddha. The Buddhavamśa is a text which describes the life of Gautama Buddha and the twenty-seven Buddhas who preceded him. The Buddhavamśa is part of the Khuddaka (Kśudraka) Nikāya, which in turn is part of the Sutta (Sūtra) Piţaka. The Sutta Piţaka is one of three main sections of the Pāli Canon of Therāvāda Buddhism. The 28 Buddhas are said to have attained enlightenment from the time Gautama Buddha received his first Niyatha Vivarana (permission to be the next enlightened one) from Dīpankara Buddha. The 28 Buddhas are not the only Buddhas believed to have existed. Indeed, Gautama Buddha preached that innumerable Buddhas have lived in past kalpas.

(2) Siddhārtha was 24th in Ikśvāku family after Mahābhārata starting on 16-10-3139 BC or Kārttika Amāvāsyā. 68 days after that, Bhīşma had died on 24-12-3139 BC when north motion of sun had started. 5 days before that Yudhişţhira had been crowned on 17-12-3139 BC. This date has been indicated by Albiruni and by Abul Fazal who has given concordance of Din-elahi with older calenders. That date of Mahābhārata is also confirmed by 5 inscriptions of Janamejaya in 29th year of his rule in 3014 BC which state all 5 elements of date of Indian calender and solar eclipse of 27-11-3014 BC also is confirmed by calculations. But so called historians of Oxford tradition tried only to wipe out any reference to any calendar and declared all kings starting calenders as fictitious. Despite stated policy of Wikipedia, no verifiable reference of date 483 BC for Buddha has been given. No basis has been given by any Oxford scholar where Boden chair in 1831 had been set up solely for uprooting Vedic culture. All writers-Weber, Wiliam Jones, Roth, Maxmuller etc have declared firm resolve to uproot Vedic tradition by any amount of forgery. Thus, recorded date of 31-3-1986 BC to 27-3-1807 BC for Siddhārtha Buddha is correct.

(3) Gautama Buddha was following Gautama tradition of verbal logic, so he was called Gautama. The whole Buddhist literature is only verbal logic to counter Gautam’s Nyāya-darśana in his own style. Out of pride, there is no line in massive Bauddha literature about origin of word-Gautama Buddha. They only state that Siddhartha had become Buddha after enlightenment. This Buddha might be in 483 BC as stated by Wikipedia without any verification. Bhaviṣya purāṇa, Pratisarga parva 3, chapter 21 tells-In Kali 27 century (starting 500 BC), Śākyasimha Gautama (not Siddhārtha Buddha of 1897-1807 BC) had set up yantras at every place to block Vedic religion. 

(भविष्य पुराण, प्रतिसर्ग पर्व ३, अध्याय २१-सप्तविंशच्छते भूमौ कलौ सम्वत्सरे गते॥२१॥ शाक्यसिंह गुरुर्गेयो बहु माया प्रवर्तकः॥३॥ स नाम्ना गौतमाचार्यो दैत्य पक्षविवर्धकः। सर्वतीर्थेषु तेनैव यन्त्राणि स्थापितानि वै॥ ३१॥

(4) Vişņu incarnation Buddha was born as son of Ajina Brāhmaņa in Kīkaţa (Magadha, present Bihar). In 756 BC, he formed a Yajña at Mount Abu to unite 4 kings of India for countering Assyrian (Asura) attacks who became powerful in west Asia in 800 BC. The 4 kings were called Agni-kula-Paramāar, Pratihāra, Chālukya and Chāhmāna.

व्यतीते द्विसहस्राब्दे किञ्चिज्जाते भृगूत्तम॥१९॥अग्निद्वारेण प्रययौ स शुक्लोऽर्बुद पर्वते। 
जित्वा बौद्धान् द्विजैः सार्धं त्रिभिरन्यैश्च बन्धुभिः॥२०॥(भविष्य पुराण, प्रतिसर्ग पर्व, ३/३)
बौद्धरूपः स्वयं जातः कलौ प्राप्ते भयानके। अजिनस्य द्विजस्यैव सुतो भूत्वा जनार्दनः॥२७॥
वेद धर्म परान् विप्रान् मोहयामास वीर्यवान्।॥२८॥ 
षोडषे च कलौ प्राप्ते बभूवुर्यज्ञवर्जिताः॥२९॥(भविष्य पुराण, प्रतिसर्ग पर्व, ४/१२) 
ततः कलौ सम्प्रवृत्ते सम्मोहाय सुरद्विषाम्। 
बुद्धो नाम्नाजिनसुतः कीकटेषु भविष्यति॥ (भागवत पुराण १/३/२४)

The federation was under Śūdraka whose Śaka started in 756 BC on that occasion as described in Jyotişa-darpaņa. As it referred to a calendar, all records of Śūdraka are ignored under Boden policy of destruction. The federation lasted for 300 years when Śrī-harşa started his empire in Mālvā. That has been indicated both by Al-Biruni and Abul Fazal. Megasthenes also has called this as 300 years of democracy. As Śrī-harşa also started a calendar, he was declared fictitious and equated with Harşavardhana of Kannauj in 605-646 AD. Finally, 6th king in Chāhmān dynasty after Śūdraka wiped out Nineve. This has been described in several places in old testament that king of Medes in east of Indus destroyed Nineve in 612 BC-

http://bible.tmtm.com/wiki/NINEVEH_%28Jewish_Encyclopedia%29
http://www.biblewiki.be/wiki/Medes

This incarnation of Vişņu as Buddha was for fooling Asuras as stated in Purāņas. Siddhārtha Buddha never moved out of small area from Lumbinī to Rājgir. He tried only to influence Magadha kings for his political power, he never thought of south or west India, much less about Asuras. On destruction of Nineve, a calendar was started in 612 BC as indicated by Varāhamihira in Brihat-samhitā (13/3). King of Delhi has been called of Medes as it was Madhya-deśa between Himālaya and Vindhya. King Dilīpa of Ayodhyā also has been called king of middle country in Raghuvamśa (2/42) by Kālidāsa. Till today, people of plain area of Nepal are called Madhes. A district of Bihar between Gangā and Himalaya is also called Madhepurā. Another Madhya-deśa (Medes) was between Persia and Caspian sea. China was middle of 3 lokas of Indra-Russia, China and India-that too was called middle kingdom.

(5) As there are 26 Buddhas before Gautama Buddha, listed in Wikipedia, he should not be called founder of Buddhism.

(6) There is no contradiction about any account of Buddha in purāņas or in Buddhist literature. Later Buddhists opposed idea of soul as it was in Vedas. But, then who was taking birth in 100 lives of Buddha in Jātaka stories? Similarly, Buddha has never been told incarnation of God. Whole emphasis of Jātaka stories is that Siddhārtha gradually developed in 100 lives. In same sense, Vişņu purāņa (4/33) has stated that son of Śuddhodana (Siddhārtha) was a form of Māyā (cover) and Moha (illusion).

(7) 4 other Buddhas have been mentioned in Nigalihva inscription near Sārnath by Ashoka Maurya (1472-1436 BC) and their birth places have been described by Chinese traveler Fahien. Krakucchanda Buddha was born 100 Kms south west of Śrāvastī , Kanakamuni 8 kms north of Śrāvastī, Kaśyapa Buddha (second) was in Tandava village, 15 kms. West of Śrāvastī. He has also stated that 300 years after demise of Siddhārtha Buddha i.e. in 1507 BC, Maitreya Buddha was born in Dhānya Kaţaka. This is modern Cuttack in Orissa where many places are still in name of Dhānya (paddy or rice) like Cahuliaganj, Salepur, Ali, Dhanmandal. That was old Uɖra from where rice was exported, so it was called Auɖrīya = product of Uɖra, that became Oryza in Greek and finally rice in English. Maitreya means solar, and his place was near place of sun at Koņārka. He preached Mādhyamaka branch, explained later by Nāgārjuna.

(8) At least 2 Buddhas were born in China. One is called Amitābha (Amidā) Buddha. He has been called Kāka-Bhuśuņɖi in purāņas, situated north east of Pāmir (prāň-meru or geographical Sumeru)-see Yoga-vāşişţha-Rāmāyaņa, Nirvāņa kāņɖa, first half, chapters (14-17). He taught Garuɖa of Kyrgyz (both mean the same) and also taught Rāvaņa, king of Lankā. His teachings are called Lankāvatāra-sūtra. Vaşişţha had visited him as described in Somānanda commentary on Lalitā-sahasranāma, as explanation to the name Sadgatipradā (verse 103, name 201). In time of Rāma (4433-4361 BC), his teachings were popular as described in Vālmīki Rāmāyaņa, Ayodhyā kāņɖa, chapters 108-109 by Jābāli and refuted by Śrī Rāma. Here, Bauddha-jaina-Chārvāka are placed in same anti-vaidika category. Buddha, Budha, Tathāgata, Śakyatama (Śākya) all are mentioned in verse (109/34). Another Buddha might be Fan who started script. Taittirīya samhitā (6/4/7) tells that Āngirasa-Bŗhaspati gave symbol for each word. (Mahābhāşya 1/1/1 of Patañjali, Ŗgveda 10/71/1, Nyāya-mañjarĩ, Maitrāyaņĩ samhitā 4/5/8 etc). That is still followed in China. Śatapatha Brāhmaņa (1/2/3/22-25) tells that this Bŗhaspati or Brahmaņaspati was from China but had came to India also. He was Manjuśrī Buddha and may be one of the 7 Brahmās described in Mahābhārata, śānti parva, chapters 348-349. He must be near time of Svāyambhuva Manu (29102 BC). Gopīnātha Kavirāja in his Tāntrika Sādhanā aur Siddhānta, page 18 calls him author of Tripurā-Rahasya. Description of Bauddha form is in Bauddha Dharma Darśana by Āchārya Narendra Deva, page 180-182.

(9) Sumedhā Buddha is same as Sumedhā Ŗşi of Durgā-saptaśatī of Mārkaņɖeya-purāņa or of Tripurā-rahasya (2 volumes-Jñāna khaņɖa and Māhātmya khaņɖa are available in about 4000 pages). He gave Dīkśā to Paraśurāma (Kollam = Kalamba samvat of Kerala starts from 6177 BC on his death) on Mahendra mountain (Orissa). He taught 10 forms of Śakti called 10 Mahāvidyā in Vedic literature and 10 Prajñā-pāramitā in Bauddha texts. Both have same meaning, but later Buddhists wanted to show separate philosophy. 

(10) Dīpankara Buddha taught Vajra-yoga started by king Suchandra. His line was called vajrayāna (methods of yoga). Buddha-tantra was propagated by Hevajra. His tradition was continued by Padma (Saroruha), Vajra, Ānanda-vajra, and Ananga-Vajra whose disciple was Indrabhūti, king of Orissa. His sister Lakśmīnkarā spread his teaching still popular as Baul songs of Bengal. His son Padmasambhava started Lāmā tradition in Tibet. Lāmā means same as Allāmā in Arabic in Islamic tradition. Allāmā means Alam (everything) in Sanskrit-it is from first to last letter In Koran, it is combination of Aleph, lam, Mim. Old Aramaic words were used for some purpose in India. Gurus of Siddhārtha Buddha were called Kalama and equals were called Abus. In old Arabic, A, B, Z (c), D-indicated 1, 2, 3, 4 etc. This was followed in Roman script. Thus normal men knowing ABC are equals. Lower is 2 only, called Abe. K, l, m, n indicate count in 10’s. So, kalām means teacher. 

(11) Old Buddhist temple in sect of Siddhārtha Buddha was built in 1100 BC in China. After about 600 years, Confucious and Laotse revived the distortions. Simultaneously, it was done in India by Kumārila Bhaţţa (557-493 BC) and Śankarāchārya (509-477 BC) as recorded in Jina-vijaya-mahākāvya etc. All had highest regards for Siddhārtha, but had to correct bad trends which had crept in after 1000 years. Siddhārtha himself had foreseen it. Oxford pattern scholars put Śankarāchārya in788-820 AD when Sindh was already under occupation of Mohammed-bin-Kasim in 712 AD and regions up to Kāśī was under severe Islamic attack. But Śankarāchārya was unaware of any Islamic invasion and was debating in Sanskrit under rule of Arab invaders. However, same scholars in books of linguistics tell it era of Gorakhanātha who united Indian kings particularly Nāgabhaţa Pratihāra and Bappā Rāval of Mewar and his disciples started literature in modern Indian languages. 

(12) Śākyasimha Buddha had visited Nepal in time of king Jitedasti (Nepal Vamśāvalī by Kota Venkatachalam, quoted in Indian history and Culture, vol. 4 by BHISHMA-Sripad Kulkarni. who was killed in Mahābhārata war (1-18/10/3139 BC). Father of Jitedasti was Humati who went to forest with Pāņɖavas (Mahābhārata, vana parva, Kairāta parva, chapters 38-41). This Buddha may be from same sal forest area or may be same family as Siddhārtha Buddha who was called Śākya-muni. Mahābhārata, śānti parva, chapters 307-308 describe teachings of this Buddha in detail (Vasişţha to Karālajanaka). This also gives 4 stages of development of Buddha-abuddha, apratibuddha, budhyamāna and śuddha.

(13) Kaśyapa was teacher of Devas and Asuras both in about 17,500 BC around Caspian sea. In his time, Asuras were supreme. His teachings as Buddha are in Mahābhārata, śānti parva, chapter 124 where asura king Prahlāda teaches importance of śīla (a bauddha term) to Deva king Indra. There might be a later Kaśyapa who was an author of Āyurveda in particular Agada-tantra (poison and toxicology). Follower of the later was Pūraņa- Kaśyapa who might be an author on treatise of mathematics just after Mahābhārata (Bhāskara-1 commentary on Āryabhaţīya). His sect was routed by Siddhārtha Buddha. His place is Kasap in Rohtas district of Bihar. (Bauddha Dharma aur Bihar-Havaldar Tripathy Sahridaya)

(14) Lokadhātu Buddha was in Kashmir who brought 48th Gonanda king Ashok (1448-1400 BC) under Bauddha influence due to which his kingdom was captured by Bauddhas of central Asia. Based on this verse of Rājatarangiņī (1/101-102), Hultzch, Govt Epigraphist at madras (now Chennai) declared that Maurya Ashoka embraced Buddhism due to which Maurya empire disintegrated. There was another Lokadhātu Buddha in Kashmir in time of Kanişka, 51st Gonanda king (1264-1234 BC). 

(15) Other Buddhas- Siddhārtha Buddha himself has stated that teachings of 3 Buddhas –Kanakamuni, Krakucchanda and Kaśyapa remained as they codified their teachings. Views of other Buddhas of immediate past vanished in absence of written literature-Vipaśyī, Śikhī, Viśvabhū.

(16) Bodhisattvas-Nārada had 3 births in which he was authority on music, astronomy and Bhakti. His teachings are in Nārada purāņa. Kārttikeya was commander of Devas in time of Asura king Bali who had gone to Pātāla-loka in Krauñcha-dvīpa (north America in shape of flying bird). This was captured by Kārttikeya by attack by śakti (missile) and then captured by navy called Mayūra (pea****). Till today, islands of Pacific have same Maori language and culture from Hawai to Newzealand separated by 15000 kms of sea. In his time, north pole had shifted from Abhijit star (Vega) and year started with sun’s entry in Dhanişţā (β-Delphini). (Mahābhārata, vana parva, 230/8-10). Then, Asura tradition of starting year with Varşā (rains in summer solstice) continued, so year was called Varşa. That was in about 15,800 BC.

List of 28 Buddhas 
(1) Taṇhaṅkara, (2) Medhāṅkara, (3) Saraṇaṅkara, (4) Dīpankara, (5) Koṇḍañña, (6) Maṅgala, (7) Sumana, (8) Revata, (9) Sobhita, (10) Anomadassi (Anoma-darśī), (11) Paduma (Padma) , (12) Nārada, (13) Padumuttara (Padmottara), (14) Sumedha (Sumedhā), (15) Sujāta, (16) Piyadassi (Priyadarśī), (17) Atthadassi (Antahdarśī), (18) Dhammadassī (Dharmadarśī), (19) Siddhattha (Siddhārtha), (20) Tissa (Tişya), (21) Phussa (Puşya), (22) Vipassī (Vipaśyī), (23) Sikhī (Śikhī), (24) Vessabhū (Viśvabhū), (25) Kakusandha (Krakucchanda), (26) Koṇāgamana (Kanakamuni), (27) Kassapa (Kaśyapa), (28) Gautama, (29) Maitreya. 

List of Bodhisattvas

In Buddhist thought, a Bodhisattva is a being who is dedicated to achieving complete Buddhahood. That is their reason for "being" or raison d'être. Conventionally, the term is applied to hypothetical beings with a high degree of enlightenment. Bodhisattva literally means an "enlightenment (bodhi) being (sattva)" in Sanskrit.

The following is a partial list of bodhisattvas, respected in Mongolian, Tibetan, Japanese and Chinese traditions.

List of Bodhisattvas
(1) Ākāśagarbha - The Bodhisattva of infinite happiness generated by helping countless numbers of sentient beings.
(2) Avalokiteśvara-The bodhisattva of compassion, the listener of the world's cries; the most universally acknowledged Bodhisattva in Mahāyāna Buddhism. Known as Guan Yin in East Asia, Chenrezig in Tibet, and Migjid Janraisig in Mongolia.
(3) Kśitigarbha - The bodhisattva of the Hell beings, or the bodhisattva of great vows.
(4) Mahāsthamaprāpta - Represents the power of wisdom, seen on the left of Amitābha in Pure Land Buddhism.
(5) Maitreya - The Bodhisattva to be reborn and to become enlightened, thus succeeding Gautama Buddha in the future. Known for his benevolence.
(6) Manjuśrī - Bodhisattva of keen awareness and wisdom.
(7) Nāgārjuna - The founder of the Mādhyamaka (Middle Path) school of Mahāyāna Buddhism.
(8) Niō - Two wrath-filled and muscular guardians of the Buddha, standing today at the entrance of many Buddhist temples in Japan and Korea under the appearance of frightening wrestler-like statues. They are manifestations of the Bodhisattva Vajrapāņi.
(9) Padmasambhava (Tib. Padma Jungne or Guru Rinpoche) - Most associated with Tibetan Buddhism and Bhutanese Buddhism. The Nyingma school regards Padmasambhava as a second Buddha.
(10) Samantabhadra - Represents the practice and meditation of all Buddhas.
(11) Sanghārāma - Only revered in Chinese Buddhism-Taoism, Sanghārāma refer to a group of devas who guard Buddhist monasteries and the faith, but the title is usually referring to the legendary Chinese military general Guan Yu, who became a Dharmapāla through becoming a Buddhist and making vows.
(12) Śāntideva - 8th century scholar, wrote about Bodhisattvas.
(13) Sitātapatra - The goddess of the White Parasol and protector against supernatural danger.
(14) Skanda - A Dharmapāla who guards the Dharma, with links to Vajrapāņi and is somewhat the direct forbear to Murugan, a Hindu deity. Primarily worshipped in Chinese Buddhism.
(15) Supuśpachandra - Mentioned in Śāntideva's A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way Of Life
(16) Sūryavairocana - One of two attendants of Bhaişajyaguru Buddha.
(17) Tārā - Female bodhisattva, or set of bodhisattvas, in Tibetan Buddhism. She represents the virtues of success in work and achievements. Also a manifestation of Avalokiteśvara.
(18) Vajrapāņi - An early bodhisattva in Mahāyāna.
(19) Vasudhara- Bodhisattva of abundance and fertility. Popular in Nepal.


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Why Buddhism was started in India? Is it started against the Vedic Hinduism and its elites domination?
Why Buddhism did not use the language Sanskrit?
How Prakrit (the language used across India before medieval period) destroyed from India during medieval period?
Why and How Buddhism destroyed from India during medieval period?
Why Hinduism did not flourish outside India where as Buddhism did?

Does the relation between Hinduism and Buddhism like Judaism and Christianity?

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Guru

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ஒரு நாள் இராமனைப் பார்க்க பரதன் வருகிறான். அவனிடம் இராமன் கேட்கிறான், "பவுத்தன் சார்வாகன் முதலிய நாஸ்திக பிராமணர்களுடன் பழகாமலிருக்கிறாயா?" என்று. (அயோத்தி காண்டம், சர்க்கம் 100).

மற்றொரு நாள் ஜாபாலி என்ற ஒரு ரிஷியிடம் இராமன் இவ்வாறு சொல்கிறான், "திருடனும் பவுத்தனும் ஒன்றே; பவுத்தனுக்கும் நாஸ்திகனுக்கும் பேதமில்லை." (அயோத்தி காண்டம்; சர்க்கம் 106)

"சீதையத் தேடிச் சென்ற அனுமான் இலங்கையில் சீதை இருந்த வனத்திற்குச் சற்று தொலைவில் புத்தர் ஆலயம் போல் கட்டப்பட்ட ஒரு உப்பரிகையைக் கண்டார்" என்று இராமாயணத்தில் இருக்கிறது. (சுந்தரகாண்டம்; சர்க்கம் 15)

"பூர்வத்தில் ஒரு பவுத்த சன்யாசி உன்னைப்போல் கொடிய பாவத்தைச் செய்து அதற்காக மந்தாதா சக்கரவர்த்தியால் கடின தண்டனை விதிக்கப்பட்டான்" என்று இராமன் வாலியிடம் சொல்கிறான். (கிஷ்கிந்தா காண்டம்; சர்க்கம் 18)
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"திரேதாயுகத்திலும் துவாபர யுகத்திலும் நடந்ததாகச் சொல்லப்படுகின்ற இராமாயணத்தில் அதற்கு பின்னால் வந்த கலியுகத்தில் பிறந்த புத்தனைப் பற்றி இவ்வளவு பதிவுசெய்தது எப்படி?"

(சான்று : வால்மீகி இராமாயணம்,
சி. ஆர். சீனிவாச ஐயங்கார் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு.)



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